Android Terminology

AOSPAndroid Open Source Project
bootloaderThe first program that is executed when starting a phone which might then boot the operating system, or take the user to a recovery mode.
deodexedA ROM that has been repackaged with all applications no longer using optimized dex files, so they can be more easily modified.
recoveryA special mode that allows the user to install official updates or to reset the phone. It is often modified to allow for installing unsigned updates or ROMs.
ROMRead Only Memory when I went to school, but to a phone, this is like an Operating System and the pre-installed programs that come along with it.
rootThe superuser who can override normal access controls present on the phone.
rootingThe process of enabling the root user to be able to execute programs on the phone.

I was just going to write some others, and then I found this nice wiki with Terminology from one of the most renowned modders: http://wiki.cyanogenmod.com/index.php?title=Terminology

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I've worked with computers for over 30 years, programming, administering, using and building them from scratch.

I'm an instructor for technical computer courses, an editor and developer of training manuals, and an Android developer.